A 2007 study showed that nafta had “a significant impact on the volume of international trade, but a modest impact on prices and prosperity.”  During its planning phase, NAFTA was strongly criticized by Reform Party presidential candidate Ross Perot, who argued that if NAFTA were adopted, Americans would hear a “huge aspiration sound” from U.S. companies fleeing the United States to Mexico, where employees would work for less pay and without benefits. The pact, which came into force on 1 January 1994, created the world`s largest free trade area. Through NAFTA, the three signatories agreed to remove barriers to trade between them. By removing tariffs, NAFTA has increased investment opportunities. NAFTA has profoundly reshaped North American economic relations and encouraged unprecedented integration between Canada`s developed economies and the United States and Mexico`s developing countries. In the United States, nafta originally enjoyed multi-party support; It was negotiated by Republican President George H.W. Bush, passed by a Democratic-controlled Congress and implemented under Democratic President Bill Clinton. Regional trade tripled under the agreement and cross-border investment between the three countries also increased significantly. In late 2019, the Trump administration received support from Democrats in Congress for the USMCA, after agreeing to strengthen the implementation of the work. In the updated pact, the parties agreed on a number of changes: the rules of origin for the automotive industry have been strengthened, so that 75% of each vehicle must come from the Member States, compared to 62.5%; and new work rules have been added, which require 40 percent of each vehicle from factories that pay at least $16 an hour. A proposal to extend intellectual property protection for U.S.
pharmaceuticals – a red line for U.S. negotiators – has been sacrificed. The USMCA is also upgrading the controversial investor-state dispute settlement mechanism, eliminating it completely with Canada and limiting it to certain sectors with Mexico, including oil and gas and telecommunications. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is a treaty of the United States, Canada and Mexico. it came into force on 1 January 1994. (Since 1989, there has been free trade between the United States and Canada; NAFTA has extended this regime.) On that day, the three countries became the largest free market in the world – the combined economies of the three nations were $6 trillion and directly affected more than 365 million people. NAFTA was created to remove customs barriers for agriculture, manufacturing and services; Eliminating restrictions on investment protection of intellectual property rights. This should be done while respecting environmental and labour concerns (although many observers point to the fact that the three governments have been negligent in environmental and safety at work since the agreement came into force). Small businesses were among those expected to benefit the most from the removal of trade barriers, as this would reduce trade activity in Mexico and Canada and reduce the administrative burden associated with importing or exporting goods. Many critics of NAFTA saw the agreement as a radical experiment developed by influential multinationals who wanted to increase their profits at the expense of ordinary citizens of the countries concerned.
Opposition groups argued that the horizontal rules imposed by nafta could undermine local governments by preventing them from enacting laws or regulations to protect the public interest. Critics also argued that the treaty would lead to a significant deterioration in environmental and health standards, promote privatization and deregulation of essential public services, and supplant family farmers in the signatory countries.