Gentlemen`s agreements were a widespread discriminatory tactic that would have been more common than restrictive alliances to maintain the homogeneity of upper-class neighborhoods and suburbs in the United States.  The nature of these agreements made them extremely difficult to prove or prosecute, and they were so long after the U.S. Supreme Court decisions in Shelley v. Kraemer and Barrows v. Jackson.  One source claims that gentlemen`s agreements “undoubtedly still exist,” but that their use has declined sharply. Similarly, Morgan worked again with Roosevelt in 1907 to create a gentlemen`s agreement that would allow U.S. Steel to acquire its biggest competitor, Tennessee Coal and Iron, in an unwritten and tacit rule that violated the Sherman Act. Until Jackie Robinson was hired by the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1946, a gentlemen`s agreement guaranteed that African-American players were excluded from organized baseball.  A gentlemen`s agreement is an informal, often un written, agreement or transaction supported solely by the integrity of the counterparty until it is actually contrary to its terms. Such an agreement is usually informal, oral and not legally binding. The result, in some cases, has been gentlemen`s agreements in which Wall Street financiers like J.P. Morgan and his “House of Morgan” met with the office to obtain prior approval for mergers and acquisitions.
One such example was the gentlemen`s agreement, in which regulators and the president neglected the Sherman Antitrust Act to allow United States Steel Corp. to become the world`s first billion-dollar company. In 1908, Canadian Labour Minister Rodolphe Lemieux negotiated an agreement with Japanese Foreign Minister Tadasu Hayashi to restrict Japanese immigration to Canada. Under the gentlemen`s agreement, the Japanese government agreed to voluntarily limit the number of Japanese immigrants who come to Canada each year. .